Key Lighting Terms According to The Ecodesign for Energy Related Products and Energy Information (Lighting Products) Regulations 2021
(1) In these Regulations “light source” means, subject to below paragraphs (4) to (6), an electrically operated product:
a) Intended to emit light; or
b) In the case of a non-incandescent light source, intended to be possibly tuned to emit light; or
c) Intended to do both (a) and (b);which has the optical characteristics specified in paragraph (2) and meets the conditions specified in paragraph (3).
(2) The optical characteristics referred to in paragraph (1) are:
a) Chromaticity coordinates x and y in the range: 0.270 < x < 0.530 and – 2.3172 x2 + 2.3653 x – 0.2199 < y < – 2.3172 x2 + 2.3653 x – 0.1595
b) Luminous flux < 500 lumen per mm2 of projected light-emitting surface area as defined in Schedule 1; c) A luminous flux between 60 and 82,000 lumen; and d) A colour rendering index (CRI) > 0.
(3) The conditions referred to in paragraph (1) are that the product:
a) Uses incandescence, fluorescence, high-intensity discharge, LED or OLED, or any combinations of these, as lighting technology; and
b) Can be verified as a light source according to the procedure in Schedule 2 of the regulations.
(4) For the purposes of these Regulations “light source” does not include:
a) LED dies or LED chips;
b) LED packages;
c) A product containing a light source from which the light source can be removed for verification as a light source according to the procedure in Schedule 2 of the regulations;
d) Light-emitting parts contained in a light source from which these parts cannot be removed for verification as a light source according to the procedure in Schedule 2 of the regulations.
(5) High-pressure sodium (HPS) light sources are not required to meet the characteristic in paragraph (2) a) To be classed as light sources for the purposes of these Regulations.
(6) A light-emitting device which is intended to be used directly in an LED luminaire is to be classed as a light source for the purposes of these Regulations.
Chromaticity means the property of a colour stimulus defined by its chromaticity coordinates (x and y).
Colour Rendering Index (CRI)
Colour Rendering Index or CRI for short:
a) Means a metric quantifying the effect of an illuminant on the colour appearance of objects by comparison with their colour appearance under the reference illuminant as defined in standards produced by an international standardising body(9)
b) Is the average Ra of the colour rendering for the first 8 test colours (R1-R8) defined in standards produced by an international standardising body
Fluorescence means a phenomenon where light is produced by a gas discharge of the low-pressure mercury type in which most of the light is emitted by one or more layers of phosphors excited by the ultraviolet radiation from the discharge.
Fluorescent Light Source (FL)
Fluorescent Light Source or FL for short means a light source which uses fluorescence as its lighting technology. It may have one (“single-capped”) or two (“double-capped”) connections (“caps”) to their electricity supply and it includes magnetic induction light sources.
Gas Discharge means a phenomenon where light is produced, directly or indirectly, by an electric discharge through a gas, plasma, metal vapour or a mixture of gases and vapours.
Halogen Light Source
Halogen Light Source means an incandescent light source with a threadlike conductor made from tungsten surrounded by gas containing halogens or halogen compounds.
HID Light Sources
HID Light sources means the following types of light source:
High Intensity Discharge (HID)
a) The light-producing arc is stabilised by wall temperature.
b) The arc chamber has a bulb wall loading in excess of 3 watts per square centimetre.
High Pressure Sodium Light Source (HPS)
High Pressure Sodium Light Source or HPS for short means a high intensity discharge light source:
a) In which the light is produced mainly by radiation from sodium vapour operating at a partial pressure of the order of 10 kilopascals.
b) With one (“single-ended’”) or two (“double-ended”) connectors to its electricity supply.
Incandescence means the phenomenon where light is produced from heat, and in light sources is typically produced through a threadlike conductor (“filament”) which is heated by the passage of an electric current.
LED refers to inorganic light-emitting diodes, and means a technology in which:
a) Light is produced from a solid state device embodying a p-n junction of inorganic material.
b) The junction emits optical radiation when excited by an electric current.
Light means electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between 380 nm and 780 nm.
Luminous Flux or Flux (Φ), expressed in lumen (lm)
b) Refers to the total flux emitted by a light source in a solid angle of 4π steradians under conditions (for example current, voltage, temperature) specified in standards produced by an international standardising body.
c) Refers to the initial flux for the undimmed light source after a short operating period, unless it is clearly specified that the flux in a dimmed condition or the flux after a given period of operation is intended.
d) For light sources that can be tuned to emit different light spectra or different maximum light intensities, refers to the flux in the reference control settings.
Mains or Mains Voltage (MV)
Mains or Mains Voltage (MV) means the electricity supply of 230 (± 10%) volt of alternating current at 50 Hz.
Average Luminance (Luminance-HLLS)
Average Luminance also known as Luminance-HLLS for a LED light source means the average of the luminance over a light-emitting area where the luminance is more than 50% of the peak luminance (cd/mm2).
a) The centre of the front face of the light source.
b) Points at which the luminous intensity is 50% of the centre beam intensity, and for this purpose the centre beam intensity is the value of luminous intensity measured on the optical beam axis.
c) For light sources that have different beam angles in different planes, the largest beam angle must be the one taken into account.
d) For light sources with user-controllable beam angle, the beam angle corresponding to the reference control setting must be the one taken into account.
Colour Consistency means the maximum deviation of the initial, spatially averaged chromaticity coordinates (x and y) of a single light source from the chromaticity centre point (cx and cy) declared by the manufacturer or the importer, expressed as the size (in steps) of the MacAdam ellipse formed around the chromaticity centre point (cx and cy).
Compact Fluorescent Light Source (CFL)
a) Primarily spiral-shaped (i.e. curly forms).
b) Primarily shaped as connected multiple parallel tubes, with or without a second bulb-like envelope; and is available with or without a physically integrated control gear.
Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT [K])
Correlated Colour Temperature or CCT (K) for short means the temperature of a Planckian (black body) radiator whose perceived colour most closely resembles that of a given stimulus at the same brightness and under specified viewing conditions.
Directional Light Source (DLS)
Directional Light Source or DLS for short means a light source which has at least 80% of total luminous flux within a solid angle of π sr (corresponding to a cone with angle of 120°).
G4, GY6.35 and G9
G4, GY6.35 and G9 means an electrical interface of a light source consisting of two small pins at distances of 4, 6.35 and 9 mm respectively, as defined in standards produced by an international standardising body.
Lifetime or L70B50 lifetime
Lifetime or L70B50 lifetime for LED and OLED light sources means the time in hours between the start of their use and the moment when for 50% of a population of light sources the light output has gradually degraded to a value below 70% of the initial luminous flux.
Lumen Maintenance Factor (“XLMF”)
Lumen Maintenance Factor also known as XLMF means the ratio of the luminous flux emitted by a light source at a given time in its life to the initial luminous flux.
Luminance (in a given direction, at a given point of a real or imaginary surface) means the luminous flux transmitted by an elementary beam passing through the given point and propagating in the solid angle containing the given direction divided by the area of a section of that beam containing the given point (cd/m2).
Luminous Intensity (candela or cd) means the quotient of the luminous flux leaving the source and propagated in the element of solid angle containing a given direction, by the element of solid angle.
Magnetic Induction Light Source
Magnetic Induction Light Source means a light source using fluorescent technology, where energy is transferred to the gas discharge by means of an induced high-frequency magnetic field.
Mains Light Source (MLS)
Mains Light Source or MLS for short means a light source that can be operated directly on the mains electricity supply, and includes light sources that operate directly on the mains but can also operate indirectly on the mains using a separate control gear.
Metal Halide Light Source (MH)
a) which has one (“single-ended”) or two (“double-ended”) connectors to its electricity supply.
b) In which the material for the arc tube is quartz or ceramic.
Non-Directional Light Source (NDLS)
Non-Directional Light Source or NDLS for short means a light source that is not a directional light source.
Useful Luminous Flux (“Φuse”)
Useful Luminous Flux also known as Φuse means the part of the luminous flux of a light source that is considered when determining its energy efficiency, and is:
a) For non-directional light sources, the total flux emitted in a solid angle of 4π sr (corresponding to a 360° sphere).
b) For directional light sources with beam angle ≥ 90°, the flux emitted in a solid angle of π sr (corresponding to a cone with angle of 120°).
c) For directional light sources with beam angle < 90°, the flux emitted in a solid angle of 0.586 π sr (corresponding to a cone with angle of 90°).